Decision trees for decision making (2023)

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Running a business i Stygian Chemical Industries, Ltd. will have to decide whether to build a small or large facility to produce a new product with a ten-year market life expectancy. The decision depends on how big the market for the product will be.

Demand can be high in the first two years, but drop to low levels thereafter, when many first-time users find the product unsatisfactory. Or high initial demand could indicate the possibility of a sustained high volume market. If demand is high and the company does not expand within the first two years, competing products will certainly be launched.

If the company builds a large facility, it has to live with it, regardless of the size of the market demand. If building a small plant, management has the option to expand the plant in two years if there is high demand in the initial phase; If demand is low during the introductory phase, the company will continue to operate in the small facility and make a decent profit on the low volume.

Management is not sure what to do. The company grew rapidly in the 1950s; kept pace with the chemical industry in general. If the market proves to be large, the new product offers the current management the opportunity to lead the company into a new phase of profitable growth. The development department, especially the development project engineer, is pushing to build the full-scale factory to take advantage of the first large-scale product development the department has produced in several years.

The president, a major shareholder, fears the possibility of unnecessary large factory capacity. He prefers a smaller installation commitment, but recognizes that further expansion to meet high demand would require more investment and be less efficient to operate. The president also recognizes that if the company does not act promptly to meet evolving demand, competitors will be tempted to introduce equivalent products.

The Stygian Chemical problem, simplified as it is, illustrates the uncertainties and problems that management must resolve when making investment decisions. (I use the term "investment" in the broadest sense, referring not only to expenditures for new plant and equipment, but also for large and risky contracts, special marketing facilities, research programs, and other purposes.) These decisions are being made. becoming increasingly important. while increasing in complexity. Countless executives want to make them better - but how?

In this article, I will introduce a newly developed concept called the "decision tree" that has tremendous potential as a decision-making tool. The decision tree, like no other analytical tool I've seen, can help management understand the choices, risks, objectives, monetary rewards, and information needs associated with an investment problem. We'll be hearing a lot more about decision trees in the years to come. While this is new to most business people today, it will certainly be mainstream management jargon before many years pass.

Later in this article, we'll come back to Stygian Chemical's problem and see how management can go about solving it using decision trees. First, however, some features of the decision tree approach will be illustrated with a simpler example.

show alternatives

Let's say it's a rather cloudy Saturday morning and in the afternoon 75 people come for a cocktail. You have a nice garden and your house isn't very big; So, weather permitting, you'll want to prepare refreshments in the garden and celebrate there. It would be more comfortable and your guests would feel more comfortable. On the other hand, if you're setting up your backyard party and it starts to rain after all the guests are gathered, the refreshments will go bad, your guests will get wet, and you'll be wishing you'd decided to party indoors. (We could complicate this problem by considering the possibility of a partial commitment to one course or another and ways to adjust time estimates throughout the day, but the simple problem is all we need.)

This particular decision can be presented in the form of a “paytable”:

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Significantly more complex decision issues can be presented in the form of paytables. In the particular case of complex investment decisions, however, a different representation of the information relevant to the problem – the decision tree – makes sense to show the ways in which the various possible outcomes are achieved. Pierre Massé, Commissioner General of the National Agency for Productivity and Equipment Planning in France, says:

The decision problem does not arise either in terms of an isolated decision (since today's decision depends on tomorrow's decision) nor in terms of a sequence of decisions (since under uncertainty what will have influenced the decisions taken in the future already learned). The problem comes in the form of a decision tree.”1

Figure I shows a decision tree for the cocktail problem. This tree is a different way of displaying the same information that is shown in the paytable. However, as later examples will show, when it comes to complex decisions, the decision tree is often a much clearer means of presenting the relevant information than a paytable.

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(Video) Decision Analysis 3: Decision Trees

Annex I. Decision tree for the cocktail

The tree consists of a series of nodes and branches. At the first node on the left, the host has the option of having the party indoors or outdoors. Each branch represents an alternative course of action or decision. At the end of each branch or alternative route there is another node that represents a random event - whether it will rain or not. Each subsequent alternate stroke to the right represents an alternate outcome of that random event. Each complete alternative path through the tree has an associated return that is displayed at the end of the rightmost branch or at the end of the path.

When drawing decision trees, I like to draw the action or decision forks with square nodes and the random event forks with round nodes. Other symbols can be used instead, e.g. B. branching of one line and two lines, letters or special colors. It doesn't really matter which method of discrimination you use, as long as you use one or the other. A decision tree of any size always matches (a)actionOptions with (b) different possibleeventsorResultsActions influenced in part by chance or other uncontrollable circumstances.

Decision event chains

The previous example, while involving only a single decision stage, demonstrates the elementary principles upon which larger and more complex decision trees are built. Let's take a slightly more complicated situation:

You are trying to decide whether to approve a development budget for an improved product. You are incentivized to do so because the development, if successful, will give you a competitive advantage, but if you don't develop the product, your competitor could seriously erode your market share. You sketch a decision tree that looks like the one in Figure II.

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Annex II. Decision tree with chains of actions and events

Your initial decision is shown on the left. After the decision to go ahead with the project, if the development is successful, a second stage of decision-making at point A follows. Assuming the situation has not changed significantly between now and the time of point A, decide now which alternatives are important to you right now. On the right side of the tree are the results of various sequences of decisions and events. Again, these results are based on your current information. The bottom line is that you're saying, "If what I know now is true, then this will happen."

Of course, you are not trying to identify every event that might happen or every decision you must make about a topic to be analyzed. In the decision tree, you create only those decisions and events or outcomes that are important to you and have consequences that you want to compare. (More images can be found in the appendix.)


For readers interested in more examples of decision tree structures, in this appendix I will describe two representative situations that I am familiar with and show trees that can be used to analyze managerial decision alternatives. We do not go into costs, revenues, probabilities or expected values ​​here.

new plant

The choice of alternatives when building a power plant depends on market forecasts. The chosen alternative, in turn, affects the outcome of the market. For example, after a period of low profits due to intense competition, the military products division of a diversified company received an order to produce a new type of military engine suitable for army transport vehicles. The division has a contract to increase manufacturing capacity and produce at a specified contract level over a three-year period.

Figure A illustrates the situation. The dotted line shows the contract rate. The solid line shows the planned production configuration for the military. Some other possibilities are represented by dashed lines. The company is unsure whether the contract will continue after the third year at a relatively high pace, as indicated in line A, or if the military will resort to another, more recent development, as indicated in line B. The company does not guarantee compensation after the third year. There is also the possibility, indicated by line C, of ​​a large additional commercial market for the product, the possibility of which depends somewhat on the cost at which the product can be manufactured and sold.

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If this commercial market could be tapped, it would be a major new business for the company and a significant improvement in the profitability of the business and its importance to the company.

Management wants to explore three ways to manufacture the product, as follows:

1. It could subcontract all manufacturing and set up simple assembly with limited need for investment in plant and equipment; costs would tend to be relatively high and the firm's investment and profit opportunities would be limited, but the firm's assets at risk would also be limited.

2. She could do most of the manufacturing herself, but use general purpose machine tools in a general purpose factory. The division would have a chance to hold more of the most profitable operations on its own, using some technical developments it had made (on the basis of which it got the contract). Although the cost of production is still relatively high, the investment in plant and equipment would be such that it could probably be reallocated or liquidated if the company disappeared.

3. The company could build a highly mechanized factory with specialized manufacturing and assembly equipment, which entails the largest investment but yields a much lower unit manufacturing cost if manufacturing volume is reasonable. Following this plan would increase the chances of continuation of the military contract and commercial market penetration, as well as improving the profitability of any deals that might be done in those markets. However, failure to sustain the military or commercial market would result in significant financial losses.

Either of the first two alternatives would be better suited for low-volume production than the third.

Some important uncertainties are: the cost-volume ratios of alternative manufacturing processes; the size and structure of the futures market - this depends in part on costs, but the degree and extent of dependence is unknown; and the possibility of competitive developments that make the product competitively or technologically obsolete.

(Video) How to Create a Decision Tree | Decision Making Process Analysis

How would this situation be represented in the form of a decision tree? (Before continuing, you can draw a tree for the problem yourself.) Figure B shows my version of a tree. Note that in this case the random alternatives are somewhat affected by the decision taken. For example, the decision to build a more efficient factory will open up opportunities for an expanded market.

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Factory modernization

The management of a company is faced with a decision on a proposal from its engineers who, after three years of training, want to install a computer-aided control system in the company's large factory. The expected costs of the tax system are some$30 million. Claimed benefits of the system are a reduction in labor costs and better product yield. These benefits depend on the yield of the product, which is expected to increase over the next decade. The installer is expected to take about two years and cost a significant amount in addition to the cost of the equipment. Engineers estimate that the automation project results in 20%return on investment after tax; The forecast is based on a ten-year product demand forecast by the market research department and an assumed service life of the process control system of eight years.

What would this investment yield? Will actual product sales be higher or lower than forecast? Will the process work? Will this provide the expected savings? If the company succeeds, will competitors follow? Are they going to mechanize anyway? Will new products or processes render the base plant obsolete before the investment pays off? Will the controls last eight years? Something better soon?

Initial decision alternatives are (a) installing the proposed control system, (b) postponing action until market and/or competitive trends become clearer, or (c) initiating further investigation or independent assessment . Each alternative is followed by the resolution of an uncertain issue that depends in part on the action taken. This resolution leads, in turn, to a new decision. The dotted lines to the right of Figure C indicate that the decision tree continues indefinitely, although the decision alternatives tend to be repetitive. In case of postponement or deepening of the study, the decisions are to install, postpone or study again; in the case of a power plant, the decision is to continue operating or to cancel.

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An immediate decision is often a subsequent decision. It can be one of several strings. Both the impact of the current choice on the constraint of future alternatives and the impact of future alternatives on the value of the current choice must be considered.

Adding financial data

Now we can return to the problems facing the management of Stygian Chemical. A decision tree that characterizes the investment problem outlined in the introduction is presented in Appendix III. Decision #1 requires the company to choose between a large and a small facility. That's all that needs to be decidednow🇧🇷 However, if the company decides to build a small facility and sees high demand in the initial phase, in two years - in decision #2 - it may decide to expand its facility.

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Annex III. Decisions and Events for Stygian Chemical Industries, Ltd.

But we go beyond a mere sketch of alternatives. When making decisions, leaders must consider the probabilities, costs, and returns that seem likely. Based on the data they now have, and assuming the company's situation hasn't changed significantly, they argue the following:

  • Marketing estimates are 60%Large long-term market opportunity and 40%Possibility of low demand, which initially evolves as follows:

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  • Therefore, the probability that demand is initially high is 70%(60 + 10).What ifDemand is initially high, but the company estimates the chance of remaining at a high level at 86%(60 ÷ 70). comparison 86%bis 60%, it is clear that a high initial level of sales alters the estimated chance of high sales in subsequent periods. If sales are low in the first few days, chances are also 100%(30 ÷ 30) that sales will be low in subsequent periods. Therefore, it can be assumed that the level of sales in the initial period is a fairly accurate indicator of the level of sales in subsequent periods.
  • Annual revenue estimates are made assuming each alternative outcome:

1. A tall, high-volume plant would yield$1,000,000 annually in cash flow.

2. A tall, low-volume plant would only produce$100,000 due to high fixed costs and inefficiencies.

3. A small, low-demand facility would be cost-effective and generate annual cash receipts of$400.000.

4. A small plant would generate income in an initial phase of high demand$450,000 a year, but that would fall on$300,000 annually over the long term due to competition. (The market would be larger than Alternative 3, but it would be divided among more competitors.)

5. If the small factory were expanded to meet the continued high demand, it would generate revenue$700,000 of cash flow annually and therefore would be less efficient than a large factory initially built.

6. If the small facility were expanded but not sustained, high demand would be the estimated annual cash flow$50.000.

  • It is also estimated how much a large plant would cost$3 million to start would cost a small factory$1.3 million, and expanding the small facility would cost more$2.2 million.

When the above data is included, we have the decision tree shown in Appendix IV. Keep in mind that nothing is shown here that Stygian Chemical executives didn't know about beforehand; no number was drawn from hats. However, we are starting to see dramatic evidence of the value of decision trees.Put outwhat management knows in a way that allows for more systematic analysis and leads to better decisions. To summarize the requirements for creating a decision tree, management must:

1. Identify the decision points and the alternatives available at each point.

2. Identify points of uncertainty and the nature or range of alternative outcomes at each point.

(Video) 🔴 Decision Tree Tutorial in 7 minutes with Decision Tree Analysis & Decision Tree Example (Basic)

3. Estimate the values ​​needed for the analysis, especially the probabilities of various events or outcomes of actions, and the costs and gains of various events and actions.

4. Review alternative values ​​to choose a course.

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Annex IV. Decision tree with financial data

Selection of course of action

We are now ready for the next step in the analysis - comparing the consequences of different courses of action. A decision tree does not give management an answer to an investment problem; Rather, it helps management determine which alternative to a given selection point will produce the greatest expected financial gain, given the information and alternatives relevant to the decision.

Of course, the rewards must be weighed against the risks. At Stygian Chemical, as at many companies, managers have different perspectives on risk; therefore, they will reach different conclusions under the circumstances described by the decision tree presented in Appendix IV. The many people involved in a decision – those who provide capital, ideas, data or decisions and have different values ​​at stake – will see the uncertainty surrounding the decision in different ways. If these differences are not recognized and addressed, the decision maker, pays for it, provides data and analysis, and has to live with it, will judge the issue, the relevance of the data, the need for analysis, and the success criterion differently. and contradictory.

For example, a company's shareholders may see a particular investment as one of several possibilities, some of which will work and some of which will fail. A large investment can pose a risk to a middle manager—to his job and his career—regardless of the decision he makes. Another participant may gain a lot from the project's success but lose little from the project's failure. The nature of the risk - as each individual sees it - influences not only the assumptions they are willing to make, but also the strategy they follow in dealing with the risk.

The existence of multiple, unspoken and conflicting objectives will certainly contribute to the “politics” of Stygian Chemical's decision, and one can be sure that the political element is present whenever it comes to people's lives and ambitions. Here, as in similar cases, it is not bad practice to think about the parties involved in an investment decision and try to make the following assessments:

  • What's at risk?Is it profit or equity, business survival, getting a job, opportunity for a great career?
  • Who takes the risk?The shareholder generally assumes the risk in some form. Management, employees, the community - all carry different risks.
  • What is the nature of the risk that each person runs?That's it,on your terms,unique, unique, sequential, insurable? Does it affect the economy, the industry, the company or part of the company?

Considerations like the above will certainly enter top management thinking, and the decision tree in Appendix IV will not eliminate them. But the tree shows management which decision today contributes most to its long-term goals. The tool for this next step of analysis is the concept of "reversal".

Concept of "reversal"

This is how reversal works in the described situation. At the time of Decision #1 (see Appendix IV), management does not need to make Decision #2 and does not know whether it will have the opportunity to do so. but if thatguerraTo have the option under Decision #2, based on current knowledge, the Company would expand the facility. The analysis is presented in Appendix V. (I will ignore the issue of discounting future earnings for now; this will be introduced later.) We see that the total expected value of the expansion alternative is$160,000 more than the no-expansion alternative over the remaining eight years. Therefore, given the information they had prior to decision #2, the alternative management would choose (thinking only of monetary gain as the standard of choice).

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Appendix V. Analysis of Potential Decision #2 (Using Expected Maximum Total Cash Flow as Criterion)

Readers may wonder why we started with Decision #2 when today's problem is Decision #1. The reason is this: we need to be able to put a monetary value on Decision #2 to "reverse" Decision #1 and profit from renting the lower branch ("Build Small Factory") with the profit from taking the upper branch ("Build Big Plant"). Let's call this monetary value for decision #2position value🇧🇷 The position value of a decision is the expected value of the preferred branch (in this case, the factory extension fork). The expected value is simply a sort of average of the results you would expect if you repeated the situation several times - you get a$5,600,000 equals 86%of time and one$400,000 equals 14%all the time.

In other words, it's worth it$2,672,000 to Stygian Chemical to position itself to make Decision #2. The question is, given that figure and the other data shown in Appendix IV, what now appears to be the best course of action for Decision #1?

Go now to Appendix VI. To the right of the branches in the top half, we see the yields of various events when a large installation is built (these are simply the Installation IV numbers multiplied). In the bottom half, we see the small plant counts, including the position value from Decision #2 plus the yield for the two years prior to Decision #2. If we subtract all these yields by their probabilities, we get the following comparison:

Build large facilities :($10 × 0,60) + ($2,8 × 0,10) + ($1 × 0,30) –$3 =$3.600 mil

Build small plant :($3,6 × 0,70) + ($4 × 0,30) –$1,3 =$2.400 mil

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(Video) Operations Research 11: Decision Trees & Decision Making under Uncertainty

Annex VI. Cash flow analysis for decision #1

Therefore, the choice that maximizes expected total return in Decision #1 is to build the large facility first.

billing for time

And as for the differences inTempoof future income? The time between successive decision stages in a decision tree can be significant. At each stage, we may need to weigh differences in immediate costs or revenues against differences in value at the next stage. Whichever parameter is used, we can put the two alternatives on a comparable basis, discounting the value assigned to the next level by an appropriate percentage. The discount percentage is actually a deduction from the cost of capital and is similar to using a present value discount rate or discounted cash flow techniques that are well known to entrepreneurs.

If decision trees are used, the discounting method can be applied step by step. Both cash flows and position values ​​are discounted.

Let's assume for simplicity that a discount rate of 10%per year for all phases is determined by Stygian Chemical management. Using the reversal principle, we start again with decision #2. Let's take the same numbers used in the previous views and discount the cash flows by 10%, we obtain the data shown in Part A of Appendix VII. Please note in particular that these are cash amounts.from the moment decision No. 2 is taken.

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Annex VII. Analysis of Decision No. 2 with discount Note: For simplicity, the first year's cash flow is not discounted, the second year's cash flow is discounted by one year, and so on.

Now let's follow the same procedure used in Appendix V when we got the expected values, only this time using the discounted yield numbers and getting a discounted expected value. The results are presented in Part B of Appendix VII. Since the discounted expected value of the unextended alternative is greater,aThe number becomes the position value of decision #2 this time.

Once this is done, we work with Decision No. 1 again, repeating the same analytical procedure as before, only with a discount. The calculations are presented in Annex VIII. Note that the Decision #2 position value at the time of Decision #1 is treated as if it were a lump sum received at the end of the two years.

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Annex VIII. Analysis of Decision No. 1

The large plant alternative is again preferred based on discounted expected cash flow. But the scope of the difference compared to the small-scale alternative ($290,000) is less than without discount.

uncertainty alternatives

In illustrating the decision tree concept, I treated uncertainty alternatives as if they were discrete, well-defined possibilities. For my examples, I used uncertain situations that essentially depend on a single variable, such as the level of demand or the success or failure of a development project. I tried to avoid unnecessary complications while focusing on the main interrelationships between the current decision, future decisions, and intervening uncertainties.

In many cases, the uncertain elements take the form of discrete alternatives of a single variable. In others, however, cash flow opportunities during a phase can span a spectrum and depend on several independent or partially related variables that are subject to random influences – cost, demand, yield, economic climate, and so on. In these cases, we have found that the range of variability, or the probability that cash flow will fall within a certain range over a period, can be easily calculated from knowledge of the key variables and the uncertainties surrounding them. Then, the spectrum of cash flow opportunities during the phase can be divided into two, three or more "subsets" that can be used as discrete random alternatives.


Peter F. Drucker succinctly expressed the relationship between present planning and future events: “Long-term planning is not concerned with future decisions. It deals with the future of present decisions.”2Today's decision must be taken in view of the expected impact and outcome of uncertain events on future values ​​and decisions. Since today's decision sets the stage for tomorrow's decision, today's decision must balance economy with flexibility; There must be a balance between the need to seize opportunities as they arise and the ability to respond to future circumstances and needs.

The unique feature of the decision tree is that it allows management to combine analytical techniques such as discounted cash flow and present value methods with a clear representation of the implications of future decision alternatives and events. Management can use the decision tree to weigh multiple options for action more easily and clearly. Interactions between current decision alternatives, uncertain events, and future decisions and their outcomes become more visible.

Of course, there are many practical aspects of decision trees beyond what could be covered in just one article. When these other aspects are discussed in subsequent articles,3the whole range of possible gains for management is considered in more detail.

Certainly, the decision tree concept does not provide definitive answers for management making investment decisions in the face of uncertainty. We haven't reached that stage yet, and maybe we never will. However, the concept is valuable for illustrating the structure of investment decisions and can also provide excellent guidance in investment evaluation.occasions.

1.Optimal investment decisions: action rules and selection criteria(Englewood Cliffs, Nova Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962), p. 250.

2. "Long-Term Planning",business Administration,April 1959, S. 239.

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3. We look forward to another article from Mr. Magee in an upcoming issue.—The editors

A version of this article appeared atjuly 1964problem ofHarvard Business Review.


What is a good example of using decision trees? ›

A decision tree is a very specific type of probability tree that enables you to make a decision about some kind of process. For example, you might want to choose between manufacturing item A or item B, or investing in choice 1, choice 2, or choice 3.

How do decision trees provide rules for decision-making? ›

A decision tree starts at a single point (or 'node') which then branches (or 'splits') in two or more directions. Each branch offers different possible outcomes, incorporating a variety of decisions and chance events until a final outcome is achieved.

What are the types of decision tree? ›

There are 4 popular types of decision tree algorithms: ID3, CART (Classification and Regression Trees), Chi-Square and Reduction in Variance.

What are 5 decision making examples? ›

Essentially, decision-making is all about choosing from the available options. The better choices you make, the better decision-maker you'll become.
Examples Of Decision-Making In Different Scenarios
  • Deciding what to wear.
  • Deciding what to eat for lunch.
  • Choosing which book to read.
  • Deciding what task to do next.
11 Sept 2020

What are the 3 types of decision making with examples? ›

Decision making can also be classified into three categories based on the level at which they occur. Strategic decisions set the course of organization. Tactical decisions are decisions about how things will get done. Finally, operational decisions are decisions that employees make each day to run the organization.

What are the advantages of decision trees? ›

Some advantages of decision trees are:
  • Simple to understand and to interpret. ...
  • Requires little data preparation. ...
  • The cost of using the tree (i.e., predicting data) is logarithmic in the number of data points used to train the tree.
  • Able to handle both numerical and categorical data. ...
  • Able to handle multi-output problems.

What is the principle of decision tree? ›

A decision tree is a graphical representation of all possible solutions to a decision based on certain conditions. On each step or node of a decision tree, used for classification, we try to form a condition on the features to separate all the labels or classes contained in the dataset to the fullest purity.

What is a decision tree and how does it help? ›

A decision tree is a non-parametric supervised learning algorithm, which is utilized for both classification and regression tasks. It has a hierarchical, tree structure, which consists of a root node, branches, internal nodes and leaf nodes.

What are the 4 types of decision-making? ›

The four categories of decision making
  • 1] Making routine choices and judgments. When you go shopping in a supermarket or a department store, you typically pick from the products before you. ...
  • 2] Influencing outcomes. ...
  • 3] Placing competitive bets. ...
  • 4] Making strategic decisions. ...
  • The constraint of decision making research.

What are the 7 types of decision-making? ›

The 7 Styles of Decision Making
  • Collective reasoning. People with this style naturally gather a group of opinions before making any decision. ...
  • Data driven. Hard data, especially numbers, are the basis of these individual's decisions. ...
  • Gut reaction. ...
  • List approach. ...
  • Spiritually guided. ...
  • Story living. ...
  • Passive undecided.
3 Sept 2015

What are the 7 stages of decision-making? ›

  • Step 1: Identify the decision. You realize that you need to make a decision. ...
  • Step 2: Gather relevant information. ...
  • Step 3: Identify the alternatives. ...
  • Step 4: Weigh the evidence. ...
  • Step 5: Choose among alternatives. ...
  • Step 6: Take action. ...
  • Step 7: Review your decision & its consequences.
8 Jun 2022

What are the 6 types of decision-making? ›

Types of Decision Making
  • Programmed And Non-Programmed Decisions: Programmed decisions are routine and repetitive in nature. ...
  • Operational and Strategic Decisions: ...
  • Organizational and Personal Decisions: ...
  • Major and Minor Decisions: ...
  • Individual and Group Decisions: ...
  • Tactical and Operational Decisions:

What are the three 3 types of decision-making? ›

At the highest level we have chosen to categorize decisions into three major types: consumer decision making, business decision making, and personal decision making.

Which algorithm is used in decision tree? ›

The basic algorithm used in decision trees is known as the ID3 (by Quinlan) algorithm. The ID3 algorithm builds decision trees using a top-down, greedy approach.

What are the 6 factors affecting decision-making? ›

Significant factors include past experiences, a variety of cognitive biases, an escalation of commitment and sunk outcomes, individual differences, including age and socioeconomic status, and a belief in personal relevance. These things all impact the decision-making process and the decisions made.

What are the 3 C's of decision-making? ›

Clarify= Clearly identify the decision to be made or the problem to be solved. Consider=Think about the possible choices and what would happen for each choice. Think about the positive and negative consequences for each choice. Choose=Choose the best choice!

What are the 5 factors of decision-making? ›

This study addresses the influencing factors that are related to decision making, and categorizes them under five captions: Personal factors, organizational factors, Social factors, Environmental factors and behavioural factors.

What is the 5 step decision-making process? ›

The decision-making process includes the following steps: define, identify, assess, consider, implement, and evaluate.

Why is decision tree the best model? ›

One of the strengths of a decision tree model is that it produces results that are easy to understand in terms of the predictor variables and target variables. An induced rule set might be even better, because it expresses the decision tree splits in terms of IF-THEN-ELSE rules, easy for managers to understand.

What are the 5 benefits of tree? ›

Trees and shrubs improve soil and water conservation, store carbon, moderate local climate by providing shade, regulate temperature extremes, increase wildlife habitat and improve the land's capacity to adapt to climate change.

What are limitations of decision tree? ›

One of the limitations of decision trees is that they are largely unstable compared to other decision predictors. A small change in the data can result in a major change in the structure of the decision tree, which can convey a different result from what users will get in a normal event.

Why is it called decision tree? ›

In decision analysis, a decision tree can be used to visually and explicitly represent decisions and decision making. As the name goes, it uses a tree-like model of decisions.

What is the main objective of decision tree algorithm? ›

The goal of using a Decision Tree is to create a training model that can use to predict the class or value of the target variable by learning simple decision rules inferred from prior data(training data).

What is decision tree and real life example? ›

The best example is buying something from any online shopping portal where we get several recommendations based on what we are buying. One type of machine learning algorithm is Decision Tree, which is a type of classification algorithm that comes under supervised classification.

What problems can be solved by decision tree? ›

They can be used to solve both regression and classification problems. Decision tree uses the tree representation to solve the problem in which each leaf node corresponds to a class label and attributes are represented on the internal node of the tree.

What is the most important property of decision tree? ›

Advantages of the Decision Tree

It is simple to understand as it follows the same process which a human follow while making any decision in real-life. It can be very useful for solving decision-related problems. It helps to think about all the possible outcomes for a problem.

What are the 4 C's of decision-making? ›

While the decision-making process within an organisation can be complex, the key factor is the information that drives the decisions. For this to be of high quality and relevance, it's best to approach information gathering with the four C's in mind: Be curious, communicate, collaborate, and clarify.

What are the 8 stages of decision-making? ›

The Decision‐Making Process
  • Define the problem.
  • Identify limiting factors.
  • Develop potential alternatives.
  • Analyze the alternatives.
  • Select the best alternative.
  • Implement the decision.
  • Establish a control and evaluation system.

What are the 10 steps of decision-making? ›

10 Steps to Making Better Decisions
  • Assess the Situation. Take the time to identify the situation clearly and then organize the issues that need to be addressed. ...
  • Take a Fresh Perspective. ...
  • Consider Your Options. ...
  • Analyze Each Option. ...
  • Get Unstuck. ...
  • Make the Decision. ...
  • Define an Action Plan. ...
  • Communicate Your Decision.

What is the 3 step decision-making model? ›

This model divides the decision-making process into three stages: goal selection, plan selection and commitment. ...

What are the 3 steps to better decision-making? ›

Three Steps to Great Decision-Making
  1. Decide when and how the decision gets made. The first order of business is to determine what decision needs to be made, who should make it, and by when it should be made. ...
  2. Resist the temptation to delay the decision. ...
  3. Don't fear the critics. ...
  4. In Conclusion.
4 Feb 2021

How many algorithms are there for decision tree? ›

The decision tree algorithm is a supervised learning model that can be used to solve both regression and classification-based use cases. There are 2 types of decision trees regression-based & classification based. There are various decision tree algorithms namely ID3, C4. 5, CART, CHAID, MARS.

What is the use of decision tree and explain it with example? ›

Decision tree uses the tree representation to solve the problem in which each leaf node corresponds to a class label and attributes are represented on the internal node of the tree. We can represent any boolean function on discrete attributes using the decision tree.

What are decision trees good for? ›

Decision trees help you to evaluate your options. Decision trees are excellent tools for helping you to choose between several courses of action. They provide a highly effective structure within which you can lay out options and investigate the possible outcomes of choosing those options.

Where the decision trees are used? ›

Decision trees are commonly used in operations research, specifically in decision analysis, to help identify a strategy most likely to reach a goal, but are also a popular tool in machine learning.

What is the concept of decision tree? ›

A decision tree is a graph that uses a branching method to illustrate every possible output for a specific input. Decision trees can be drawn by hand or created with a graphics program or specialized software. Informally, decision trees are useful for focusing discussion when a group must make a decision.

Why is it called a decision tree? ›

Known as decision tree learning, this method takes into account observations about an item to predict that item's value. In these decision trees, nodes represent data rather than decisions. This type of tree is also known as a classification tree.

What type of problems are decision trees used for? ›

A decision tree is one of the supervised machine learning algorithms. This algorithm can be used for regression and classification problems — yet, is mostly used for classification problems. A decision tree follows a set of if-else conditions to visualize the data and classify it according to the conditions.


1. Decision Trees & Decision Tables
(Eddie Woo)
2. Decision and Classification Trees, Clearly Explained!!!
(StatQuest with Josh Starmer)
(Aringo Fredrick)
4. Decision Focus 08 - Sound Reasoning with Decision Trees
(Decision Education Foundation)
5. Let’s Write a Decision Tree Classifier from Scratch - Machine Learning Recipes #8
(Google Developers)
6. Part 6-Decision making under uncertainty using Decision tree and utility functions
(Shokoufeh Mirzaei)


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